This compulsory module in the Higher School Certificate examines the health status of Australians and investigates, in depth, the current health priority areas in Australia. Students identify and justify the choice of priority areas and examine the roles that health promotion and health services play in achieving better health for all Australians.

How are priority issues for Australia’s health identified?


How are priority issues for Australia’s health identified?
- measuring health status
- role of epidemiology
- measures of epidemiology (mortality, infant mortality, morbidity, life expectancy)
- identifying priority health issues
- social justice principles
- priority population groups
- prevalence of condition
- potential for prevention and early intervention
- costs to the individual and community

What are the priority issues for improving Australia’s health?


- groups experiencing health inequities
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples
http://www.naccho.org.au/ - National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation
http://www.ahmrc.org.au/ - Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council
- socioeconomically disadvantaged people
- people in rural and remote areas

Video regarding Australia's rural population. Source: www.youtube.com

- overseas-born people
- the elderly
- people with disabilities
· high levels of preventable chronic disease, injury and mental health problems
- cardiovascular disease (CVD)
- cancer (skin, breast, lung)
- diabetes
- respiratory disease
- injury
- mental health problems and illnesses
· a growing and ageing population
- healthy ageing
- increased population living with chronic disease and disability
- demand for health services and workforce shortages
- availability of carers and volunteers.

What role do health care facilities and services play in achieving better health for all Australians?
- health care in Australia
- range and types of health facilities and services
- responsibility for health facilities and services
- equity of access to health facilities and services
- health care expenditure versus expenditure on early intervention and prevention
- impact of emerging new treatments and technologies on health care, eg cost and access, benefits of early detection
- health insurance: Medicare and private
· complementary and alternative health care approaches
- reasons for growth of complementary and alternative health products and services
- range of products and services available
- how to make informed consumer choices

What actions are needed to address Australia’s health priorities?
· health promotion based on the five action areas of the
- levels of responsibility for health promotion
- the benefits of partnerships in health promotion, eg government sector, non-government agencies and the local community
- how health promotion based on the Ottawa Charter promotes social justice
- the Ottawa Charter in action

The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion Document *LINK*


1. What is epidemiology?

(A) The design of health promotion initiatives
(B) Information about the health of a population
(C) A characteristic of the new public health approach
(D) A study of the socio-cultural factors influencing health

2. Which factor is used to identify priority areas for health in Australia?

(A) Costs to individuals
(B) Ability to recoup costs
(C) Threats from epidemics
(D) Patterns from overseas priorities

3. What are the major benefits of having private health insurance?

(A) Reduced cost for dental care and reduced access to prescribed medications
(B) Improved access to private hospitals and free medical treatment
(C) Choice of doctor and reduced waiting times for surgery
(D) Choice of doctor and bulk billing options

4. Which contributes most significantly to health inequities experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples?

(A) Mainstream health services are not always accessible for geographic, social and cultural reasons.
(B) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples choose not to be considered as part of the health care system.
(C) Australian governments allocate large sums of money to the health needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
(D) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ traditional approaches to health and medicine are not covered by private health funds.

5. Which action areas of the Ottawa Charter are best reflected in the NSW government initiative that restricted smoking in hotels and clubs?

(A) Developing personal skills and reorienting health services
(B) Developing personal skills and creating supportive environments
(C) Building healthy public policy and reorienting health services
(D) Building healthy public policy and creating supportive environments

6. Which initiative is an example of the new public health model for dealing with the increase in childhood obesity?

(A) Increased child allowance payments to parents
(B) Medical interventions for overweight children
(C) Student-conducted survey of canteen products
(D) Compulsory school screening for obesity levels

7. Which risk factor contributes most to mortality in Australia?

(A) Alcohol
(B) Smoking
(C) High-fat diet
(D) Physical inactivity

8. Which of the following describes the health of socioeconomically disadvantaged Australians?

(A) High rates of cardiovascular disease, asthma and diabetes
(B) High rates of cardiovascular disease and diabetes and low rates of mental health conditions
(C) Low rates of cancer, injury and diabetes
(D) Low rates of cardiovascular disease and high rates of diabetes and injury

9. Which factors contribute to health inequities for people living in rural and isolated locations?

(A) Lower life expectancy, greater participation in physical activity and lower levels of education
(B) Lower levels of harmful alcohol use, lower socioeconomic status and higher incidence of cancer
(C) Greater smoking rates, reduced access to health care services and increased risk of injury
(D) Greater infant mortality rate, decreased health screening services and lower levels of obesity

10. Summarise the reasons for the growth of alternative health care approaches in Australia.

11. Describe the inequities of health status experienced by people of low
socioeconomic status in Australia.